The exact cause of renal cell carcinoma is yet to be identified, but several factors can contribute to renal cell carcinoma, it includes the following:
- Smoking is one of the most common reasons for developing cancer, the more a person smokes, the more the risk of cancer
- Obesity plays a major role in increasing the risk of renal cell cancers
- Exposure to asbestos, heavy metals.
- Cystic kidney disease
- Polycystic kidney disease
The most common system used for staging lung cancer is the TNM system.
T stands for Tumour. It is used to describe the size of the tumour. It also helps to determine whether the tumour has grown into other parts of the organ or tissues around the organ. It is represented by a range of 1 to 4. The higher the number means the larger the tumour.
N stands for Lymph Nodes. It helps determine if cancer has spread to the lymph nodes around the organ. NX means the impact on lymph nodes cannot be determined. N0 means cancer hasn’t spread to nearby lymph nodes while N1, N2, and N3 means cancer has spread to lymph nodes. N1 to N3 also shows the range that how many lymph nodes are affected.
M stands for Metastasis. It is used to determine if cancer has spread to other parts of the body through blood or lymphatic system. MX means the metastasis cannot be determined; M0 means cancer has not spread to other body parts while M1 indicates that it has spread to other body parts.
Sometimes lowercase letters like a, b and c are used to divide the tumour, lymph nodes, and metastasis into subcategories. Also lowercase “is” is used to denote carcinoma in situ. E.g. Tis